Paint is a substance that coats or covers an object or area to protect it, mark it out, or decorate it. It comes in various forms and types and is usually composed of pigments (powdered minerals) suspended in either water, oil, latex (rubber), emulsion (type of varnish) or resin (natural products). A pigment acts as colorant within the finished coatings. All paint consists of colorants such as titanium dioxide capping sands and micro-spheres embedded in a binder. The main elements which contribute to most paints’ physical properties are:
- Pigment – gives its color; this can be natural or synthetic
- Binder – holds the pigments together and gives the paint its film strength
- Vehicle – provides flow, gloss and leveling.
The exact ingredients of paint will depend on an individual’s personal preference, but some types include:
Latex (resin dispersed in water) – this remains flexible and is ideal for areas that undergo regular movement such as roof gutters. Oil-based (alkyd resin) – offers better exterior durability, Stain (pigment suspended in oil or water) – often applied using a roller, can be removed with organic solvents such as turpentine, Acrylic (synthetic resin atomized into very small droplets) – long lasting and tough coatings used for industrial flooring and walls.
Paint is applied in what way?
Paint can be applied either by hand or with a spray-gun, depending on the required finish. When using a paint gun, it is important to note that latex paints should not be used in this way as they will block the nozzle of the gun. They also have a short shelf life once mixed and must be used quickly, otherwise they begin to set too quickly and cannot be re-mixed.
Variety in paint
Paints are available in many colors and may change color when dried due to exposure to ultraviolet light rays from natural sunlight or electric lamps. This is called “fading” and is primarily caused by ultraviolet radiation from sunlight striking exposed unpainted surfaces painted with dark colors or those painted with only one coat. The result is that those areas fade quickly and those parts of the object not exposed to ultraviolet radiation remain dark.
Effect of temperature and humidity
In addition to this, paint can also be affected by temperature and humidity. These environmental conditions will determine how long a given paint coating will last and what its strength and flexibility will be once dried. Although most paints are designed for indoor use, many manufacturers now produce exterior-grade varnishes and paints which provide better durability when subjected to humidity or extreme weathering/UV exposure such as near salt water or in direct sunlight.
Paint in glossy or matte finish
Paint comes in either a glossy or matte finish depending on the type of pigments used during production; both finishes can provide good protection from UV rays but matte tends to be more durable due to the lower number of air pockets within its film.
Finally, it is important to note that paint should not be applied over other, already dry paint films as doing this will interfere with adhesion and can cause peeling or flaking which can lead to structural damage to whatever has been painted. If applying new coats onto dried films, wet areas must first be treated with a suitable thinner/cleaner before painting can begin.
Appearance and protection
Many varnishes provide both appearance and protection for surfaces such as floors, walls, doors etc. However it is always best practice even when using protective finishes like varnish to apply an additional coat of exterior-grade paints which are designed to provide superior durability in hostile conditions.
Paint is made of four main components: resin, additives, solvent, and pigment (“Paint”). The resins are the binders that hold all the pigments together. They allow the product to adhere to the surface it is painted onto. A water-based paint uses acrylic emulsion polymers to bind together.
Resins used in paints include alkyd resins, acrylics, vinyl resins, natural resins, oleoresinous materials, phenolics, silicones, urethane’s, casein, lacquers and others (Sherwin-Williams Company). These are added so that paints have specific qualities needed for particular applications. For example, protective coatings would not be long lasting if they used natural resins. Different binders are required for different applications (Sherwin-Williams Company).
Paint with additive property
Many paints are made with additives that are added to the binder to enhance certain qualities in the product. Additives may include corrosion inhibitors, leveling agents, rheology modifiers, anti-foaming agents, anti-settling agents, adhesion promoters, viscosity modifiers or suspending agents. These substances determine how well a paint will dry, flow, dry time, temperature resistance, chemical resistance, elasticity and other properties. They also affect pigments’ color tone and brightness. For example, brush marks could not be eliminated by using alkyd resins since they have poor leveling effects.
Pigments used in paint
Pigments are needed to give paints their color tones. Pigment may come from natural substances like bone black or lamp black, which is carbon soot collected by burning oil lamps (Sherwin-Williams Industry) or titanium white or zinc white, both made from titanium dioxide or zinc oxide, respectively. Synthetic organic pigments may be derived from aniline, a derivative of benzene. In addition to inorganic and organic pigments, paint often includes inorganic colorants such as iron oxides and ultramarines.
Thoughts of people
Most people don’t give the paint manufacturing industry much thought. They see it as nothing more than a colorful tint that is applied to their walls. However, paint is more than just a color; it is a liquid material that dries to a beautiful finish. Manufacturers must carefully follow an intricate process in order for this simple act of painting one’s home to be created.
The entire manufacturing process is long and intricate because it requires careful control of components that are acting as liquids at specific points during the process. This makes it necessary to rely on modern day, high-tech equipment to ensure that everything goes smoothly. While most people may not consider every step involved when they want their home painted, manufacturers know exactly what must be done to create high quality products for customers.
Frequently Asked Questions
- What are the basic raw material used in paint?
There are 3 basic components in the raw material i.e. pigment, solvent and resins additives.