Condemnation Real Estate
Eminent domain is often referred to as “condemnation” (or sometimes “expropriation”). It relates to compulsory purchase by a government agency or other authorized entity such as a municipality or corporation designated as its agent (for example, a transit agency). It is the most commonly employed method of land acquisition as an alternative to negotiated purchase or as a part of another general plan such as urban renewal. Condemnation is a tool that governments may use to acquire property for public projects. The government can expand roads, create flood control zones, or build significant infrastructures, such as airports or schools, to promote the public good.
Condemnation does not always have to be for a government-owned or operated project. Condemnation can result in the land eventually being owned by a private party if the government believes the proposed use of the land is for the public good. Jack will probably want to talk to a real estate attorney about the specifics of the state’s laws so that he can be sure that the process is being followed and that his legal rights are protected.
In the case of condemnation property, Jack will be entitled to compensation for the loss of his belongings. Many states require that before condemning a property, the state negotiates to purchase it first. Jack and the government can try to reach a better deal this way, but condemnation won’t stop. After condemnation occurs, Jack has the right to recover the fair market value of whatever the government takes.
To determine the property’s fair market value, also known as a pro tanto award, the government must have the property appraised. Unfortunately, the fair market value does not consider whether Jack has any debt on the property or whether the sentimental value is attached to the property. If Jack believes the amount offered by the government is unfair, he can hire an appraiser and employ a lawyer to challenge it. As far as preventing the property from being seized is concerned, Jack can only challenge the amount of compensation he receives. Most states allow the government to take land under quick take laws.
Under quick take laws, the government can place a deposit against the property and take the land immediately, with their final determination of value and final payment taking place later.
While laws vary by state, the process of condemnation generally proceeds in this manner:
- Private properties or private land may be used for public or economic development by the government or government agency.
- Fair market value is determined after an appraisal. Pro tanto (to a certain extent) compensation is the partial payment the government offers to the owner.
- During a court hearing, both sides will need to appear if the owner refuses to sell. Afterward, the owner will have the opportunity to argue their side.
- If the condemnation proceeding is allowed, the court decides. One party can appeal the court’s decision if they are dissatisfied with the outcome. Even though the property owner cannot challenge the condemnation process, they may argue for a more significant settlement. Property owners should consult with a real estate attorney and get an independent appraisal of the property’s value. The court will not consider sentimental value or any other personal elements in addition to the property’s fair market value.
A property owner’s objection does not slow down the condemnation process, even if they challenge the compensation offered. State laws called “quick take” favor governmental construction and renewal projects quickly getting off the ground. Thus, the prize will be awarded as soon as possible to transfer ownership and title. Delays could cause the property value to decline, adversely affecting the property owner over time.
Eminent domain vs. condemnation
Eminent domain and condemnation are not the same, although they are closely related. Eminent domain is the government’s right to take private property or land for public use. The land is condemned when the government exercises its power of eminent domain and takes control from the owner of the land. Eminent domain cannot occur without condemnation, not the other way around.
The condemning authority must follow a rigorous process to invoke eminent domain correctly, as the right to private property is severe. To determine the property’s fair market value, government authorities must first appraise the property. A “pro tanto award” is then offered to the owner, which the owner may accept without losing their right to sue the government. Or they can reach an agreement in which both parties are satisfied. If the matter goes to court, property owners typically receive much less than what they would receive if the case were settled.
Following notification of the beginning of the condemnation process, the condemning authority must provide a copy of the appraisal to the property owner. In addition, the property owner has the option of contesting the amount offered and appealing through several levels. Taking the case to court can also be used by a property owner to examine whether the condemnation is necessary. A court must find that condemnation is needed or that the government’s reason for exercising eminent domain is valid before curse will proceed. Property owners must accept an amount as determined by a judge or a special commissioner if the court decides to allow condemnation.
Permission from state or federal authority
Condemnation real estate is a type of property ownership that requires state or federal authorities to use by private individuals. Condemnation real estate is usually utilized for public highways and border security projects. Often, this process results in a forced purchase of property from an owner who may not want to sell their land. In other cases, the government only seizes a portion of a person’s property for limited use, normally paying an amount determined through eminent domain.
Condemnation real estate may also result in the forced sale of property when necessary to construct public utilities such as roads and power grids. Purchasing land through eminent domain typically requires an estimate of what the developer would pay if the transaction were conducted voluntarily. If the owner does not accept this amount, they are allowed to contest the action in either state or federal courts.